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The adult length of the sternum measures 15-17 cm. The costal cartilages of the first rib and part of the second rib also articulate with the manubrium, and they fit into facets on its lateral border. Article was last reviewed on August 6th, 2018. W.M. The sternum is sometimes known as the breastbone. The lower border is narrower, is quite rough, and articulates with the body with a thin layer of cartilage in between. The lateral sides of the superior border of the sternum articulate with the clavicles via sternoclavicular joints. Causes including Marfan syndrome (fibrillin defect) and Ehler’s Danlos syndrome (collagen defect). Register now The succeeding joints are symphysis. The sternum is also known as the breastbone. The superior border articulates with the sternal body via xiphisternal joint. The lateral borders are connected with abdominal aponeuroses [, The anatomical end for anterior thoracic cage, Formation of infrasternal or subcostal angle together with the subcostal margins. Below this demifacet are four facets for articulation with costal cartilages of ribs 3 to 6. It forms part of the rib cage and the anterior-most part of the thorax. The posterior surface of the body gives rise to the transversus thoracis muscle (innervated by intercostal nerves). The posterior surface of the lower sternum is also the superior attachment site for the transversus thoracis muscle. This bone forms the anterior part of the thoracic cage , thus participating in the … The xiphoid process does not fully join the body of the sternum until adulthood. Sternal fracture is a form of a simple thoracic cage injury. It is made up of cartilage until it ossifies at the age of 40 and in some cases, they become one with the sternal body in old age. Xiphoid process may be small but it is an important landmark for the structures beneath it. The top of the sternum supports the clavicles and its edges are connected with the costal cartilages of the first two pairs of ribs. Although simple, it should still be given immediate medical attention. The body of the bone (also known as the gladiolus) is a long flat structure, with a convex anterior surface, and a concave posterior surface. Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver, Author: There may be a sensation of a “popping” sternum in sternal fracture. It forms part of the rib cage and the anterior-most part of the thorax. The superior sternopericardial ligament connects the pericardium (that lies in the superior part of the middle mediastinum) to the manubrium. © 2019 Health Fixit. Symptoms will include soreness around the area, and if the great vessels are compromised, sudden death. It is a flat bone that articulates with the clavicle and the costal cartilages of the upper 7 ribs (true ribs), while the 8th, 9th and 10th ribs (false ribs) are indirectly attached with sternum via costal cartilage of the ribs above. The superior part of the manubrium expands laterally and has a distinct and palpable notch in the midline, called the jugular notch or suprasternal notch. Sternal angle or the angle of Louis is the articulation that is formed by the fusion of manubrium and body of the sternum. The sternum is used as the site for bone marrow biopsy in obese or overweight patients, where access to the iliac crest is limited. Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster. Externally, it is made up of compact bone. The anterior surface of the sternal body is almost flat. The inferior border gives rise to the linea alba. The xiphoid process is a small projection of bone which is usually pointed. At birth until young adulthood, there are four sternebrae attached to sternal synchondroses. It has facets on its each lateral border for articulation with the costal cartilage of the 3rd to 7th ribs along with the part of second costal cartilage. Inside of it is a cancellous or spongy tissue that is entirely vascular. Its upper part is also connected with the sternocleidomastoid muscle, while the inner surface of the sternum serves for the attachment of the sternopericardial ligaments. The posterior costoxiphoid ligament, transversus thoracis, and diaphragm are attached to the posterior surface. On its lower end is the origin of the transversus thoracis. Read more. and grab your free ultimate anatomy study guide! The manubrium is a large quadrangular shaped bone that lies above the body of the sternum. Frank H.Netter MD: Atlas of Human Anatomy, 5th Edition, Elsevier Saunders. Its functions are to protect the thoracic organs from trauma and also form the bony attachment for various muscles. This is the opposite of pectus excavatum, and occurs when the ribs and sternum grow abnormally, so the sternum protrudes outwards. Last reviewed: October 29, 2020 • Richard L. Drake, A. Wayne Vogl, Adam. As part of the bony thoracic wall, the sternum helps protect the internal thoracic viscera – such as the heart, lungs and oesophagus. The sternum, in vertebrate anatomy, is a flat bone that lies in the middle front part of the rib cage. The sternum participates in forming several joints. On each side of this notch is a large oval fossa for articulation with the clavicle. Your sternum protects the organs of … It is also the center around which the superior 10 ribs directly or indirectly attached. It is also the center around which the superior 10 ribs directly or indirectly attached. Fractures, dislocations, joint separations, wounds, or any other forms of injury or trauma to the thoracic cage cause pain to the sternum. When a person reaches 25 years, these sternebrae fuse to form three synostoses. On the lower lateral side of the manubrium is a demifacet, which together with a similar facet on the body, forms a cavity for articulation with the second costal cartilage. Image Source:, Picture 6: Sternocostal Articulations There will be pain in your sternum with each breath you take. Inside of it is a cancellous or spongy tissue that is entirely vascular. The sternum is shaped like “T” and becomes narrowed at the point where manubrium joins the body, after which it widens again and narrows at its lower and. This bone forms the anterior part of the, The sternum participates in forming several joints. The xiphoid process is the smallest part of the sternum, located inferiorly. In birds it is a relatively large bone and typically bears an enormous projecting keel to which the flight muscles are attached. The right and left clavicular notches articulate with the right and left clavicles, respectively. The corpus sterni or gladiolus is the longest part of the sternum, although it is narrower than the manubrium. It lies on the anterior thoracic wall in the middle. Image Source: The sternum has three distinct parts or elements: Normally, the sternum is positioned obliquely, downward and forward. It involves spontaneous, continuous movement of the thoracic cage, including the sternum. Image Source: Clinical Anatomy 2nd edition, Picture 7:  The first sternocostal joint is categorized as synchondrosis.


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